What is Nosema disease?

Nosema disease in honey bees is caused by two species of pathogens, Nosema apis and Nosema ceranae. Nosema apis was the only known microsporidian honey bee pathogen until 1996, when a second species, Nosema ceranae, was identified from the Asian honey bee. Nosema ceranae appears to be the dominant species in the European honey bee (Apis mellifera) in many parts of the world, including in Europe and the United States. Both of these pathogens cause chronic deleterious effects in the …

If honey becomes crystallized (solid) has it gone ‘bad’?

Honey does not spoil. Crystallized honey is caused by the glucose in liquid honey becoming a solid. Honey can be consumed in its crystallized form or you can warm the honey to dissolve the crystals by placing the jar in warm water and stirring until the crystals disappear. Do not boil or scorch the honey. – Nancy Ostiguy, Pennsylvania State University…

What is raw honey?

It is assumed that raw honey is neither heated nor filtered. As there is no official or legal definition of raw honey, it is possible that a product labeled raw honey may have been heated or filtered. – Nancy Ostiguy, Pennsylvania State University…

Does honey have nutritional value?

Honey consists primarily of glucose and fructose (both are carbohydrates) and 17-18% water. Unlike other sweeteners, honey has trace vitamins and minerals including calcium, copper, iron, magnesium, manganese, niacin, pantothenic acid, phosphorus, potassium, riboflavin and zinc. Antioxidants are also found in honey. Flavanoids and phenolic acids found in honey act as antioxidants scavenging and eliminating free radicals. Darker honeys tend to have higher quantities of antioxidants. Honey also makes an effective antimicrobial agent for treating sore throats and other bacterial …

Why do newly installed packages of bees seem to abscond more than well-established hives?

The difference between a newly installed package of bees and an established hive has to do with the comb (an established have has drawn the comb out and has stores and brood) and the existence of brood in an established hive. Between the drawn comb and the presence of brood bees are very likely to stay put. Installing a package is usually pretty simple and successful. NC State Cooperative Extension has a series of Beekeeping Notes, one of which is …

What is the basic life cycle of the fungus, Ascosphaera apis that causes chalkbrood disease in honey bee colonies?

Spores of the fungus are ingested with the honey bee larval food. Larvae are most susceptible if they ingest spores when they are 3 to 4 days old and then are chilled briefly 2 days later, immediately after they are sealed in their cells to pupate. The spores germinate in the hind gut of the bee larva, but mycelial (vegetative) growth is arrested until the larva is sealed in its cell. At this stage, the larva is about 6 or …

How are queen bees raised and mated?

There are many methods of raising queen bees, but the central tenant of queen production is that a fertilized egg may be reared into a queen or worker depending on the food it receives as a larva. In general, a beekeeper specializing in queen production sets up special colonies (e.g., “starter” colonies) that are queenless. Young larvae are transferred, or “grafted,” from selected breeder colonies into man-made queen cell cups. The grafted larvae are placed into the starter colony where …

What crops do not require honey bee pollination?

Honey bees improve, or supplement, pollination for most plants they visit. However, honey bees are considered negligible pollinators for the following crops: soybean, peach, field beans, snap beans, tomato, corn, cotton, peanuts, pecans, canola, and alfalfa. In cases like these, the plant is either independent of insect pollination in general or dependent on other pollinators. – Keith Delaplane, University of Georgia…