The only way to be sure is to examine bees by microscope. A sample of bees is macerated in a small amount of water, and then a drop of the liquid is examined on a microscope slide at 400 power. Spores appear as ovals, about 3 by 5 microns. One outward indication of Nosema is brown spots (fecal material) on the outside or inside of a hive. The inner cover or top bars can be soiled with feces in a …
What are wax moths and what kind of damage do they make in a beehive?
There are two species of wax moth that cause damage to honey bee colonies by consuming beeswax as their larvae develop and in the process of making a pupal cocoon they score the wooden frames that hold the wax combs, weakening the wood. Damage becomes obvious as they produce large quantities of gray-white webbing and dark fecal material as they feed. The larger of the two species (3/4 inch long gray-brown adult), the greater wax moth, Gallaria melonella causes more …
What is the basic life cycle of the fungus, Ascosphaera apis that causes chalkbrood disease in honey bee colonies?
Spores of the fungus are ingested with the honey bee larval food. Larvae are most susceptible if they ingest spores when they are 3 to 4 days old and then are chilled briefly 2 days later, immediately after they are sealed in their cells to pupate. The spores germinate in the hind gut of the bee larva, but mycelial (vegetative) growth is arrested until the larva is sealed in its cell. At this stage, the larva is about 6 or …
What is Nosema disease?
Nosema disease in honey bees is caused by two species of pathogens, Nosema apis and Nosema ceranae. Nosema apis was the only known microsporidian honey bee pathogen until 1996, when a second species, Nosema ceranae, was identified from the Asian honey bee. Nosema ceranae appears to be the dominant species in the European honey bee (Apis mellifera) in many parts of the world, including in Europe and the United States. Both of these pathogens cause chronic deleterious effects in the …
How is Nosema disease treated?
Nosema disease can be treated successfully with Fumigillin (trade name Fumidil). Colonies are usually treated in the fall, spring, or both. Follow the directions on the label and feed the correct dosage in 50% sugar syrup (1:1 sugar:water, with antibiotic dissolved in 5-10 ml warm water then mixed into the syrup) in the spring, 66% in the fall. Nosema ceranae also responds to Fumidil treatment, but may require a higher dosage. The antibiotic does not kill the spores, but disrupts …
What are some ways to reduce the population of Varroa mites in honey bee colonies, without the use of pesticides?
Mite-resistant Bees. In response to development of resistance to chemical miticides, and in order to provide more sustainable mite management, honey bees have been selectively bred for resistance to, or tolerance of, Varroa. There are two known mechanisms of resistance: hygienic behavior and suppression of mite reproduction (SMR). Hygiene is the removal of diseased (including mite-parasitized) brood by workers; SMR is the reduction in reproduction of female mites within brood cells. Types of resistant queens include; Minnesota Hygienic, the Russian …
Lessons Learned by the Managed Pollinator CAP: Impacts of Varroa Parasitism on Honey Bee Health
by Katherine Aronstein1 and Angela Douglas2
CAP Updates: 27
- Jointly published in the American Bee
Sunlight, Water and Nosema Spores
by Thomas C. Webster, College of Agriculture, Food Science and Sustainable Systems, Kentucky State University, Frankfort, KY
CAP Updates: 26
- Jointly published in the American Bee Journal
The First Two Years of the Stationary Hive Project: Abiotic Site Effects
Handbook of Small Hive Beetle IPM
Dr. Michael Hood, Extension Apiculturist at Clemson University has released a detailed Extension bulletin on Small Hive Beetle Integrated Pest Management.
Download the .pdf of Handbook of Small Hive Beetle IPM by clicking here.